Albanian, Tosk

Tosk Albanian as spoken in Tirana

Reciprocal markers

1njëri-tjetrinbipartite nominal one-otherAlbanian, ToskSections: Basics(3), Morphology(26), Syntax(11), Selection(11), Polysemy(13), Discontinuous(1)

2shoku-shokunbipartite pronoun friend-friendAlbanian, ToskSections: Basics(3), Morphology(19), Syntax(10), Selection(11), Polysemy(12), Discontinuous(1)

3Verbal middleUse of middle forms of the verb Albanian, ToskSections: Morphology(13), Syntax(7), Selection(13), Polysemy(18), Discontinuous(1)


List examples

Custom Properties


Language name
Albanian, Tosk
CommentsReportedly not intelligible with Gheg and Italian Albanian.
Ethnologue code (ISO 639-3)
Dialect/variety reported
Tosk dialect as spoken in Tirana
Genetic classification (Ethnologue)
Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk
Language group (Ethnologue top level)
Language genus (following WALS)
Linguistic macro-area (following WALS)
Standard Albanian orthography.
In general, only those categories are glossed which are expressed by a marker.
Nominative is not glossed. "OBL" is used for syncretic case marking, usually Genitive/Dative/Ablative.
I use the gloss PASS for Buchholz/Fiedler's "non-active" used for passive, reflexive, reciprocal and other related functions.
For more details, please consult Buchholz/Fiedler (1987) and other reference grammars of Albanian.
Sources consulted
Akademia e Shkencave e Republikës së Shqipërisë, Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (2002): Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe, Vëllimi I, Morfologjia. Tiranë. (authors: Agalliu, F. / Angoni, E. / Demiraj, Sh. / Dhrimo, A. / Hysa, E. / Lafe, E. / Likaj, E. )
Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (1980): Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe. Tiranë.
Buchholz, O. / Fiedler, W. / Uhlisch, G. (1992): Wörterbuch Albanisch-deutsch. 5.Aufl. Leipzig: Langenscheidt.
Camaj, M. (1991): Lehrbuch der Albanischen Sprache. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Demiraj, Sh. (1993): Historische Grammatik der albanischen Sprache. Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Dhrimo, Ali. 2005. Tirana: Infbotues. Fjalor Shqip–Gjermanisht.
Hetzer, A. / Finger, Z. (1991): Lehrbuch der vereinheitlichen albanischen Schriftsprache. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
Newmark, Leonard and Hubbard, Philip and Prifti, Peter. 1982. Standard Albanian. A reference grammar for students. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Simoni, Z. (1978): Fjalor Gjermanisht-shqip. Tiranë.
CommentsThis list contains all sources used by Ariana Shehu and me.


Session status
Session type
Consultant-analyst, plus a second analyst
CommentsAriana helped me with comments, not the least hints to tense-aspect and voice (some verbs require more than 10 forms to construct the all paradigms!). In addition, she added some details on norms and variation from Albanian descriptions and her own family.
The descriptions of the strategy represent my analysis.
Analyst conducting session
Thomas Hanke
Analyst's familiarity with the language
no knowledge of the language
Language of session
CommentsInterview, mainly via email.
Date of session
March 2007, June 2007


Balanced samples
Genetic-WALS, Areal-Genera-50, Areal-Language-50
Rating of the collected data for this language

Language consultant

Consultant name
Ariana Shehu
Year of birth
Gender of consultant
Level of education
nurse, university student
Language biography
1966-1991 Albanian
1991- Albanian family, friends, translations
1991- German everyday life, work, education,
Learned language at age
mother tongue
Familiarity with the language
native speaker
Formal knowledge of the grammar
was taught traditional grammar in school

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