a.k.a. Ndyuka, Surinamese English Creole

Reciprocal markers

1(anga) makandii'with together' borrowed from DutchAukanSections: Basics(2), Morphology(9), Syntax(7), Selection(10), Polysemy(12), Discontinuous(2)

2(taa wan …) taa wan 'other one' in argument position (and optional in first position) AukanSections: Morphology(7), Syntax(6), Selection(12), Polysemy(14), Discontinuous(1)

3Pronoun seefiPlural reflexiveAukanSections: Morphology(17), Syntax(7), Selection(10), Polysemy(13), Discontinuous(1)


List examples

Custom Properties


Language name
CommentsFor the name of this language I refer to the Ethnologue entry, and Huttar and Huttar's Introduction (1994: [xi-xiii]).
Ethnologue classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka: Aukan and Kwinti.
Ethnologue code (ISO 639-3)
Dialect/variety reported
Northern, Tapanahoni River
CommentsCf. Huttar and Huttar's Map and Introduction (1994: [ix], [xi-xiii])
Language group (Ethnologue top level)
Language genus (following WALS)
Creoles and Pidgins
Linguistic macro-area (following WALS)
South America
I follow Huttar and Huttar's (1994) system.
CommentsGlossing: besides minor modifications, I use N3.PL for plural pronominal forms which are (glossed as) ambiguous between first and second plural, i.e. which are glosses as "1/2pl" by Huttar and Huttar (1994).
Background (examples in the description of Pronoun seefi): there is a common homonymy of 1PL and 2PL pronouns.
The explicit description given by Huttar and Huttar (1994: 590, 594): the vowels of wi '1PL' and yu '2SG' are deleted before single vowel morphemes like e 'continuous' resulting in like we and ye. This leads in frequent contexts to the neutralization of wi 1PL and u 2PL.
In contrast to this explicit description, the Huttars gloss (and sometimes write) the plural pronouns wi and u in many contexts as ambiguous, by means of the gloss is "1/2pl". The contexts include "… seefi", cf. the examples.
Technical note: 'NX' for 'non-X' is part of the proposed vocabulary in the Leipzig rules, cf. NPST, NFUT; I preferred this solution to a syntactic extension of the glossing system like "1/2PL".
Sources consulted
Huttar, George L. and Mary L. Huttar. 1994. Ndyuka. London, New York: Routledge.
CommentsSince Huttar and Huttar - or rather Routledge - do not assign numbers to the pages before "1. Syntax", I employ Roman numerals starting on the inside title, two pages after the editorial statement.


Session status
Needs review/editing
CommentsMore examples required, which may be available in other sections of Huttar and Huttar (1994).
Session type
Based on written sources only
Analyst conducting session
Thomas Hanke
Analyst's familiarity with the language
limited communication skills
Comments(due to the high percentage of English words, supplemented by Dutch and Romance borrowings)
Language of session


Balanced samples
Genetic-WALS, Areal-Genera-50
Rating of the collected data for this language

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