Basque, Standard

Reciprocal markers

1bata bestea(-Case)Bipartite reciprocal markerBasque, StandardSections: Morphology(12), Syntax(7), Selection(11), Polysemy(13), Discontinuous(1)

2detransitivized verbOnly one absolutive argument, intransitive auxiliary Basque, StandardSections: Morphology(17), Syntax(7), Selection(8), Polysemy(9), Discontinuous(2)

3elkar(-Case)reciprocal nounBasque, StandardSections: Morphology(15), Syntax(13), Selection(11), Polysemy(14), Discontinuous(1)


List examples

Custom Properties


Language name
Basque, Standard
Ethnologue code (ISO 639-3)
Dialect/variety reported
Standard Basque, as spoken in Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa
CommentsStandard Basque ("Batua") is largely based on Gipuzkoan.
Genetic classification (Ethnologue)
Language group (Ethnologue top level)
Language genus (following WALS)
Linguistic macro-area (following WALS)
Standard orthography.
Sources consulted
Artiagoitia, X. 2003. Reciprocal and reflexive constructions. In: Hualde and de Urbina, eds., p. 607-632.
Etxepare, R. 2003. Valency and argument structure in the Basque verb. In: Hualde and de Urbina, eds., p. 363-425.
Hualde, José Ignacio, Gorka Elordieta, and Arantzatu Elordieta. 1994. The Basque dialect of Lekeitio. Bilbao and Donostia: Universidad del País Vasco.
Hualde, José Ignacio and Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.). 2003. Basque. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Saltarelli, Mario. 1988. Basque. London and New York: Routledge.
Trask, R.L. 2003. 3.1. The Noun Phrase: nouns, determiners and modifiers; pronouns and names. In Hualde and de Urbina, eds., p. 113-170.
Other chapters in Hualde and de Urbina (eds., 2003).
CommentsI used internet queries for frequency estimates.
In addition, I asked native speakers on specific topics, a.o. the combination of elkar with the intransitive construction.


Session status
Needs review/editing
CommentsI left out the strategy with the combination of XX 'each' and XX 'other', because this seems to be a composite strategy with fully transparent semantics. I do not have evidence that this is a conventionalilzed reciprocal strategy.

More detailed research possible e.g. for interaction of elkar with intransitive predicates in some dialects.
!! Animacy of elkar!

Session type
Analyst working with a consultant
CommentsI consulted a number of native speakers for details.
Analyst conducting session
Thomas Hanke
Analyst's familiarity with the language
no knowledge of the language
Language of session
Questions on details of the intransitive strategy and elkar.


Balanced samples
Genetic-WALS, Areal-50, Areal-Genera-50
Rating of the collected data for this language

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